The key topics covered in the seminar are as follows:

**Introduction****Spatial Dependence Models****Estimation of Spatial Dependence Models****Maximum Likelihood Estimation****Monte Carlo Simulation****Algorithm Implementation****Simulation Study****Robustness to Misspecification****Comparison with Non-Spatial Models****Analysis of Malaria Data****Discussion and Conclusion****References**

These topics provide a comprehensive overview of spatial dependence modeling, estimation techniques, simulation studies, and practical applications in analyzing spatial data, specifically in the context of malaria data.

Screenshot_۲۰۲۴۰۸۱۳-۲۲۴۳۰۱_Samsung Notes.jpg

Missing file

The mathematical expression provided in the image can be represented in LaTeX as follows:

$\forall 1 \leq i \leq N \quad h_i(t|b_i) = \sum_{m=1}^{r} h_m \mathbf{1}_{[\tau_{m-1}, \tau_m]}(t) \exp(Z_i^t \beta + b_i), \quad b \sim N(0, \sigma^2 \Sigma_{exp}(\rho))$
In R, you can represent this using the

`sum`

function and other relevant operations. Here is a sample R code snippet to represent this:This R code defines the function $h_i(t|b_i)$ and calculates its value for given parameters.